Brain Biofeedback

LORETA #11: Progress Check and Review

Posted on
Session 11: time to check my progress and do something a little different.

The progress check comprised about ten minutes of the LORETA software simply reading my brainwaves. It's boring staring at the little green light at the bottom of the monitor for 12 minutes while reminding yourself to relax the jaw and shoulders, but necessary. Keeping jaw and shoulders relaxed and the eyelids lowered but not closed ensures the muscle tension and effort to keep the lids up (an effort you’d never notice except when sleepy) doesn't impinge on the brainwaves.

After that, we began the usual LORETA training. But since this was session #11 and next week the training parameters would be changed, it was a chance to do a one-off challenge. We turned subtitles off so that I wouldn’t read and my trainer lowered the z-score threshold from 2.4 to 2.2. Lowering the z-score or standard deviation threshold makes it more challenging to keep those really out of whack networks engaged.

Since the humans the program is based on probably didn't read closed captioning (I wonder if it included deaf or blind people…?), the Clinical Coordinator Andrea Reid-Chung wanted to see if there would be a difference in the networks caught if we turned off closed captioning, that is, would we still see receptive language or slow reader networks as being problematic without me actively reading during the screens? Also, would my reading improve more in the days following LORETA training? I don't have the answer to the latter yet, but yes receptive language and slow reading were still an issue. And even perception of letters came up because when people were introduced or translations were given on the DVD, up would pop words.

The scores can’t be compared to previous sessions directly, but there was a distinct improvement because from the first screen to the last one, even though I still had too-many seconds of staring at a black screen, I also had many-seconds of watching the DVD full screen. Yes!

No matter what my 10-minute EEG shows, I asked that anger not be included in the symptom checklist when they’re programming the new parameters because the anger focuses and brightens me into a line drive, which is what I want to keep. The anger at this point is not the brain injury beast it was and is also not triggered by every little thing. I'm not chucking telephones at walls (never did anyway, always thought what a pain to replace and too expensive) nor am I ranting for hours on end. In other words, if I had the anger levels of a few years ago before I began my hypothalamus fix, yes, we’d want to include anger in the checklist. But I don't. And especially given my inconsistent dampened emotions, what’s left of it I need to drive me into being who I am, whatever that is, and into action, whether it be writing, reading, studying, or something else.

It has been exactly a year since I first went back to the ADD Centre and had my first trial training for gamma brainwave enhancement in the CZ position. Hard to believe! I’ve been tracking the number of hours I work, read, and sleep for more than a year using the iPhone app aTimeLogger, and this week I reviewed the average daily hours for each month for the last year to see if there were any changes.


It looks like sleep is stabilizing on average, even though every night it can vary from under 6 hours to over 8. At least not too many 4- or 5-hour nights anymore. I am still inconsistent in my aggregated work/read/study hours, but it looks like after every big dip, I rise to a bit of a higher peak in the next month. And the dips aren't so dippy. The interesting thing is the months I write every day, I spend almost the exact same number of average hours working. But after this past April, I didn't have a big drop like I had after last June and November (these were my writing months). I assume that meant I didn’t crash completely once I’d finished writing the first draft of a book in April and was able to recover faster. While there is a gradual incline in the number of work and sleep hours, reading hours remain unchanged, being rather inconsistent month to month with no upward trend. Sigh.

Andrea went over my EEG progress reading and entered that along with my new symptom checklist into the LORETA neurofeedback program. The first good news was that she had to go down to 2.1 standard deviations to get enough to work on. That may explain why I did better than we expected with dropping the z-score to 2.2 from usual 2.4 during training this week. Cool.

The symptoms that rated highest were:

  1. Slow reading and perception of letters
  2. Anxiety and attention
  3. Symptoms of fibromyalgia and word finding

The network that had the highest standard deviation was working memory. This is the kind of memory that allows you to remember what you’re doing as you’re doing it, and would include things like keeping track of what you’re reading and building up a picture as you read. Working on that should help with my reading and comprehension. So these are the things I'll be working starting next week. And it is very comforting to know that my brain is showing objective improvement. It isn't permanent yet because I haven't had enough LORETA neurofeedback to date, but it's going in the right direction!


Brain Biofeedback

A LORETA Setback . . . Maybe

Posted on

Last week, I had an average day at LORETA neurofeedback, that is, I achieved a string of scores like most others have. An uptick from the first screen to the second, then down down down. Sigh. At least I ended in the same place as the previous session; doing that required a Herculean effort to raise it up from the depths it had sunk into.

I also felt different than other times. Usually, I begin tired, not wanting to, maybe disengaged. And then I become engaged, I become alert. And by the time I'm done, I'm feeling alive, alert, and with it. This is true even on those days when I start the session feeling alert or engaged I become even more engaged and perhaps feel like I’ve gained a new set of eyeballs.

Not last week.

I was actually not horrendously tired to start with. And I didn't have a head-ache from being on the bus. I was in a more positive mood than I have been recently, not groaning inward about when will this be over already. I didn't have any of those thoughts.

And then I finished the first screen and saw the score: lower than last time. OK. Try not to get disappointed. Begin the second screen. I began to feel empathy in response to the content of the DVD. And every time I did, slurp, there would go the DVD, disappearing into the black. The emotion-related networks (and the reading/language ones too) were being challenged. I'm not sure I felt empathy more intensely than during the previous session, but last week, it was the only thing I experienced. No intellectual engagement, no alertness, and in that screen, no frustration. I felt the latter a tiny bit here for a nanosecond then gone in other screens. The astounding thing was that that second empathy-focussed screen produced my highest score, 183.

164 to 183 was a big jump. We talked about what I felt, what the trainer saw popping up in the coherence networks, and how to recreate that high score. But no matter. After that, I had a hard time holding on to any emotion, felt increasingly disconnected, not engaged, and had no increase in alertness and my scores kept dropping till they hit 158. Sigh. Perhaps the trainer’s desire for me to connect with positive emotions instead of going with the stronger, sadder emotions had me going in the wrong direction and disconnecting quickly. Perhaps, it was those lower emotions I needed to connect to as that was what was coming up as I was following the story on the DVD of the ancient Egyptian who had been murdered.

And so during the last screen, I hunkered down, so to speak, and made a deliberate, concerted effort to feel. And every time the feeling tried to slip away, I tried to hold on to it. I got 175. The effort was worth it.

So why this anomaly? We can only theorize. Last week’s session results may have been related to my PTSD; it may have come out of the conversation I had with my neurodoc the previous week after the previous LORETA neurofeedback; and/or it may have been connected to the conversation I had had with my gamma biofeedback trainer earlier last week. All these things were related to losing the essence of who I was pre-injury. That essence may be coming back (more as a part of new me, not the core of me as before), and I am unprepared to handle it. My lack of preparedness is related to the fact that it’s just been so damn long, related to what that loss cost me, related to what I learnt about people as a result of that loss, and related to the traumatic memories. Basically bad shit. Maybe parts of me scurried down a rabbit hole to hide from all that as the LORETA and neurodoc tried to pull, yank it out into the open.

We talked about how we would know as the next days unfolded and we saw how I was, how my emotions were, and if the spurt of initiation I usually get after LORETA still happened.

It didn’t. I blogged on Friday morning more because I didn’t want to break the pattern the LORETA had instilled in me, one I was proud of, not because I felt that intrinsic initiation. It was an effort. I did have a spurt of creativity later on Friday, but then I spent an awful long time revising a chapter of Simon’s Death on Friday and posting it on Saturday. I am rarely that slow. It was like the usual activities, e.g., searching for the right word in a scene or expanding a detail, went into slo mo. My emotions rose up on the weekend, and then by Monday, I lost my mojo and became disconnected again. I just didn’t wanna, was my attitude, similar to two Mondays in a row a few weeks ago.

Although I had drafted this post on the bus ride home after LORETA, I didn’t have the slightest inclination to edit and post it until after I did my weekly gamma brainwave biofeedback. Getting better is tough. As my GP said a long time ago, improvement isn’t a non-stop upward trend.

I need chocolate.

Brain Biofeedback

LORETA Number Nine

Posted on

After I scored a (to me) dismal 168 points after my first five-minute screen, my trainer and I discussed what a good set of scores should look like during the standard six screens of LORETA neurofeedback. It doesn’t matter so much (except for a self-competitive person like me) where I begin as long as we see at least two increases before a decrease. Two in a row in an upward trend in score would show a training or learning effect; a down after that would be because the brain is tiring, as would be expected. But then we would want to see the next high score higher than the previous high score to show the brain is continuing to learn, while the next down should be higher than the first low score or first down to show a learning effect is taking place.

I took in what she said and produced just that. For the first time in nine sessions! 168, 175, 173, 184, 177, 184.

After the first screen, I had a few long moments of the DVD filling the screen scattered throughout some of the five-minute screens, instead of in just a couple of screens like last time. I also managed to have several moments of reading the closed captioning and not having the DVD immediately disappear on me. So frustrating, as well as a bit nausea-inducing, when as soon as I begin reading, the DVD screen shrinks, grows, shrinks, grows, shrinks, grows in rapid succession as I try to read. It was great to see my brain tolerating reading better after a few screens and, as well, me not misreading words constantly like last week.

After my LORETA neurofeedback session, I got a chance to talk to Dr. Lynda Thompson about my concerns over drive, initiation, motivation, over my growing awareness that retaining (some of my) moral anger is important as it’s part of my essence, of me being able to see and try to fight injustice, and especially to have the courage to go up against the establishment. We talked about the necessity of me knowing what I want and how important it is to be able to articulate that beyond “get better, recover from brain injury” when it comes to LORETA neurofeedback. I need to know who I want to be so that LORETA training doesn’t inadvertently take me somewhere else. After all, though we want to normalize my initiation, we don’t want to normalize my intelligence. The things that make us unique or are an essential part of who we are are not the things to normalize.

(On a side note, I don’t think those educated and working in the medical system understand how powerful these brain-training technologies are and how they engender permanent effects, not the temporary symptom-management effects of pills. My neurodoc suddenly understood this a few weeks ago. It was rather amusing.)

Brain Biofeedback

Brain Biofeedback and Drive, Initiation, Motivation

Posted on

Drive, initiation, motivation are three aspects of our human-ness I didn't think much about, except for drive, till after my brain injury.

Rehab talked about brain injury inducing a loss of motivation; learned articles acknowledged there’s such a thing as initiation deficit post-brain injury. But the one thing my father talked about a lot (ok, endlessly till I wanted to, well did, roll my eyes), rehab and other medical professionals didn't address much: drive.

Sometimes various health care professionals would comment I had a lot. But that was about it.

For me, before my brain injury, drive was ambition. After injury, drive was desperation. I was desperate to think again, to feel normally, to be able to keep up with life — in short, to get out of the injury hell hole.

The last few months, that desperation has been slipping away; maybe for more than a year it has, I don't know exactly, as it’s been a stealthy retreat. But I would say it's gone now, maybe a thin, mild sliver left. Desperation could be construed as ambition to get better. And so if that is gone (why is it gone since I’m not better?), what should take its place? And yet while what some see as drive in me is ebbing, in the last few weeks, my initiation has been sparking to life on and off because of the stimulus of the LORETA neurofeedback treatments. One would think with initiation comes drive, comes that thing that gets you up and moving. But I don't think so, for I can initiate after LORETA to blog but I have no sense of that part of me for which injustice mattered enough to get angry about, to get me to rise up to fight and write. Drive I think is part of that. And maybe motivation. How is LORETA neurofeedback and gamma brainwave biofeedback affecting these? Are they affecting me the way I would like? Is it too early to know?

And so I am thinking I have to think about these three things that get us as a species and as individuals to grow, advance, improve — think and do — about what each of these three things’ role is, and about how they differ so that I can understand what the hell is happening to me.

Brain Biofeedback

MiWay to LORETA Neurofeedback

Posted on

My butt hurts. The back of my thighs are sore. They merge into one big pain. That's my overriding thought on LORETA day. The MiWay (Mississauga) bus that took me to the ADD Centre’s offices must have the most uncomfortable seats in the universe. First, they're hard. Second and worse, they’re too short seat-size-wise, and I am not a tall person. If they end short for me, how much more precarious they must feel for an average-height Canadian?! And third, some are too high. So my legs are simultaneously too long and too short. So with my butt and thighs thoroughly sore from the bus, they were not happy having to sit for another hour and a half during LORETA neurofeedback. It was amazing I could move after all that. And then I had to get back on the same blasted bus. I was praying for the older MiWay bus I had gotten on last week. But no luck. The other thing is that I can balance on TTC buses fairly okay holding on to the poles. I don't have a hope in hell on a Miway bus. Is it the driver? The roads? Or the hellish bus design?

All this of course is a distraction from how the LORETA session went. Because the ADD folks were attending a workshop all week, I had to go on a different day, and I had a different trainer. It was so quiet with just her and me. My brain was happy in all that quiet, and only her kicking me out got me to head back out into the wild, noisy world.

I was not as tired or in pain as last week. So naturally my scores were lower. On the plus side, they were more consistent. It was a miracle I wasn't in pain, given how much the MiWay bus banged around and the lead-footed driver. But I think I was spiking gamma brainwaves at some points; they make you feel good. From my training for the past year, I can tell when my gamma is increasing; it's a visual change, like an eagle zeroing in on its target. This week the DVD was on the ancient lines in the desert in Peru, and as usual, we turned on closed captioning for me to read, thus hopefully engaging the brain networks involved in reading. I became hungry during screen 4 and by end of screen 5, I was starving. And so I did something I normally don't do during biofeedback: I ate my energy bar. After that longish break, I did screen 6. I felt pretty good afterwards. I had a fleeting moment where I thought that maybe I could do a seventh screen. But the fatigue set in, disabusing me of that idea.

The last half of the session (screens 4 and 6, maybe 5 too), I had periods where the DVD played full screen with seemingly no effort on my part. It was beautiful. And then I had periods where the damn thing stayed off too long. Grrr.

However on the bus as I was typing the draft of this blog post in IAWriter app on my iPod Touch, right here, right at this point in the writing, I could feel my brain speeding up. And my fingers could barely keep up on the iPod Touch as the bus trounced along. It reminded me of the early days of brain biofeedback when my speech would speed up, and my mind couldn’t keep up with my talking. Weird.

Reading has been up and down. This past weekend was depressing with respect to that. But on the way to my session, I realised I was reading the eBook on my Kindle with not much problem. I managed to keep going for about 7 then another 8 minutes. Pretty good! Last week, reading on the way to my session was a depressing affair of being unable to focus and feeling like I was stuttering all over the place. And right here at this point in writing the draft of this post, I feel like my neurons are happily and swiftly shooting electrons to each other, sparking my brain awake. Vision cleared up, and my stamina felt a bit longer than last week. So there you go.


Brain Biofeedback

Taking Public Transit to LORETA Neurofeedback

Posted on

It's weird leaving LORETA neurofeedback training and hopping onto public transit (disconcerting too, to have the bus pull up right away) instead of driving off. I wonder if not having inadvertent highway exposure therapy will make a diff? I had wondered too if not having it before would make any diff?

Well, as to the latter question: there was no huge jump in total scores from last week to this week. Only one screen showed a big jump. That was when my trainer opened the office door for the first of two screens (screens three and four) to have me train with distractions going on. (The first two screens and last two were done with the door closed.) Last week it was 168, this week 182. Now, last week the program had crashed after I'd done about three minutes of training and so the low score I received was actually a restart. The program didn't crash this week, for once. And so I had exactly thirty minutes of training instead of the thirty and a bit of the last two weeks.

Beside the jump in score for that one screen by 14 points (168 vs 182), overall I did better. My highest scores, in screens three and four, were higher than last week’s; my last screen was higher too. I would take from that that I improved a bit in concentrating when being distracted.

This week the networks that were hit included the usual suspects plus a new one: blurred vision, concentration, executive function, failure to initiate action, hyperactive and/or agitation, low motivation, multi-tasking problems, obsessive thoughts about self, perception of letters, sequential planning, short-term memory, slowness of thought – easily confused, slow reader, and spatial perception problems.

I don’t know why the chronic pain network wasn’t triggered, for when I got to the ADD Centre, I had a headache rising up from my neck. And I was stiff. It's probably because of the nutty weather we’re having. Cold, hot, thunderstorms, muggy, on the way back down to cold by end of weekend, they say. At one point right at the end of the session, I thought the neck pain and so the headache had eased. But nope. Maybe I should eat, I thought on the bus. I did bring bars after all, a Simply bar and a fruit-and-nut bar. And look at that, they did help. Of course, they were not enough. I'd just done the equivalent of a brain marathon; it needed the equivalent of a post-marathon feeding.

It amazes me how some boys and men think they can do brain training, whether single electrode or LORETA, without eating beforehand and believe they’ll still be able to do well. Your brain is gonna go on strike if you don't eat breakfast and don’t feed it some pre-workout fuel. It seems utterly daft to me to think training will happen without eating well and regularly. But apparently a few believe in this miracle. Me, I don't like starving myself anyway. Brain training is the best excuse to eat and for — cake! Preferably chocolate.

Brain Biofeedback

LORETA Neurofeedback Outs My Distractability

Posted on

We experimented in this week's LORETA neurofeedback session with open door/closed door. I played the DVD with my brain with the door closed for the first two five-minute screens, door open for the second two screens, and door closed for the last two screens. We wanted to see if it made a difference to my scores and to which networks were picked up.

It did.

The Brodmann areas involved in concentration were all picked up when we opened the office door and I started to become distracted by the minimal activity in the central area of the ADD Centre. Also, my performance dropped, meaning I couldn't hold the DVD full screen for as long as in the previous two screens. I did improve in the second screen we left the door open for, showing a bit of a learning effect.

I had trouble following the narrator (today's DVD was on the people of the Amazon) but not hearing him. That too was picked up on by the LORETA software. Speaking of software, it has a habit of crashing mid-training. The designer doesn't know why. For me it means I lose the data, usually about three minutes worth. So for two weeks in a row now, I've played the DVD for 33 minutes in six five-minute screens that were recorded and saved and one three-minute screen that was interrupted by the crash and was not recorded or saved.

Last week, I was given to read an article on PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) and neurofeedback by Dr. David Hagedorn in Neuroconnections Spring 2012 (PDF). Andrea talked to me about it this week, and apparently the area we're doing the single-electrode gamma brainwave biofeedback is exactly the location where PTSD appears in the frequencies affected by this disorder. This could be why my heart rate drops during gamma training in this area, PZ-O1, and did not in CZ. And so instead of moving to PZ as had been planned for next week, we may remain in PZ-O1 for the time being. As Andrea said, nothing is written in stone.

My trainer showed me a plot of my progress. Some brain networks are normalizing (good news), but all the coherence problems in the frontal lobes in the beta and high alpha frequencies are not dropping much, whether between areas in the frontal lobes or between one in the frontal and one in another lobe. That's an indication of the severity of the injury in the frontals the primary part of the brain impacted, as is typical in coup-contracoup brain injuries from car collisions. She showed me this plot probably because I was looking rather disheartened. After such a fast start, improvement is slowing. But that's typical of what they see in their clients apparently. It's easier to drop from 2.4 standard deviations from the norm to 2 than 2 to 1.5. I wish I was done already, and it didn't help that this week it gave me a crashing headache (which like all such work-induced headaches was gone about an hour after I stopped playing the DVD). But the fact I function better after each session keeps me going. Still, I had a honking huge piece of cake to soothe myself.


Brain Biofeedback

LORETA Neurofeedback: Week Five

Posted on

Low motivation. Or blob on a rock, as I described it to my trainer, the feeling and lack of thinking I've had since Sunday, with a brief retraction on Wednesday afternoon when I managed to be productive. I hadn't realized that that strange feeling, one I haven't had for years and which was prevalent after my brain injury, was low motivation. Anyway, low motivation was one of the networks that LORETA neurofeedback training picked up this week as going past the 2.4-standard-deviation threshold and stopping the movie. I don't recall seeing that one before.

It is not procrastination. Procrastination means doing something else, anything else, to avoid doing the thing you don't want to do. There's a certain feeling to it. My fave way to procrastinate is to clear my desk. Since I've never been a big procrastinator, my desk doesn't get cleared as much as it should. I say should because I do function better without visual clutter. Being a blob on a rock, you don't even have enough thoughts in your head to want to procrastinate.

It is not avoidance. That too has its own feeling to it. I know the things I want to avoid, and writing ain't one of them. Sure, writing sometimes scares me — do I know what I'm doing? am I ready? — but I don't avoid thinking about it. I don't feel like a skittish dog who turns his head to avoid seeing something when I think about writing or marketing (which I hate, but that too is not avoidance). Avoidance may be so severe that you don't know what you're avoiding until someone mentions that dreaded subject to you. But that's not blob-on-a-rock-ness. When someone mentions what I'm supposed to be doing while I'm being a blob instead, I go, “oh yeah…” with that vague feeling of I should care but not caring.

Anyway, after the third screen during this week's LORETA neurofeedback training, I felt my mind brightening, beginning to engage, to care about the movie. I wanted to see what was coming next. Phew. Blob-on-rock feeling abated for now. I am drafting this post without anything or anyone, including myself, telling me to do it. So not only is low motivation reversed (for the moment) but also initiation deficit. Failure to initiate action was also picked up by LORETA, which it has been every week.

Other things picked up: problems with concentration (that must have been in later screens because during the first few screens, I wasn't being distracted but was later on in the session), sequential planning, anxiety, executive function, multi-tasking, obsessive thoughts about self, perception of letters, receptive language, short-term memory, slowness of thought-easily confused, and spatial perception. Some showed up in all the screens; some did not. I didn't do as well as last week because of a couple of tough anniversaries five days apart this week. They said, given the week, I did well. Don't be tough on yourself! Yeah, okay.

I did six five-minute screens like last week, but I also did an extra three minutes because three minutes into my first screen, the program crashed. Changed batteries in the device that connects electrodes to computer, check cable connections, and restart first screen. All was okay after that, and we redid the first screen though picking up in the show where we'd left off. The data from the first three minutes was lost. So I guess that was warm up!

Since we had finished the Kratts Brothers DVD last week, we began a new DVD this week. I can't remember the name; it was a National Geographic show on the Inca. I asked for English subtitles to be turned on because I thought if I had to read something during LORETA, whether closed caption or translation subtitles, maybe that would shove the networks involved in reading into action. And as you can see, some of those networks — perception of letters, receptive language, short-term memory — were engaged and picked up by LORETA.

Brain Biofeedback

LORETA Neurofeedback Week Four

Posted on

The ADD Centre folks are great. You have a problem with the training, and they immediately go hmmm, tweak the settings, and have a new protocol ready for you for the next session. This week, they removed the mood network from my LORETA neurofeedback training. In one way, that would make it easier as I would be training one fewer network. Yet the networks left are pretty severe and would be targetted first by the program instead of the mood network as had happened previously (as I understand it). As a result, they raised the threshold to 2.4 from 2.0 standard deviations from the norm. Any brainwave amplitude, coherence, or phase that went above 2.4 would cause the DVD to disappear into a pinprick or right into nothing. In the last three sessions, it would have been any of those that went above 2.0. However, to me, in execution, there was no difference. It was just as hard to keep the DVD visible, never mind filling the entire screen. Yet, I did find it was easier to remain engaged without instructing myself, to want to see what came next, which is crucial to improving coherence.

This week, we watched the lemurs episode of the Kratt Brothers Be The Creature. They were cute. I did six five-minute screens for the second week in a row. I began not as fatigued as last week, but as usual tired with each screen; then by the fourth screen, I began to brighten mentally. The dichotomy between bright brain and fatigued self was not as dramatic as after the first session. But it's still there. After all, I'm typing this while my body wants to have a nap.

I learnt a bit more about the LORETA training. It’s used primarily for complex cases like diffuse axonal brain injury (me) or stroke or even autism. The computer tracks amplitudes of the various brainwaves; coherence between many different parts of the brain and also within each brainwave band; and phase between brain areas and within each band. So the list is long, to say the least. To keep it simple for us humans, the trainer notes which coherence pairs are problematic but does not narrow it down to the brainwave band as well unless the same band keeps popping up. In other words, maybe Brodmann areas 9L and 10R* are going above 2.4. But that could be within the alpha, or the lower Beta, or the Theta bands. Unless it's always within, let's say, the Theta band, the band won't be noted down, only the coherence pair that caused the DVD to disappear.

The same networks kept popping up. This week the big ones were blurred vision (not last week), executive function problems, failure to initiate action (this was primarily in Theta band last week), speech articulation problems (not last week), sequential planning problems (not last week), multi-tasking problems (this was primarily in Theta band last week), and auditory sequencing problems (not last week). (Last week but not this included short-term memory, word find, mood, and spatial perception problems.) I was fairly consistent too. Working on these networks did not adversely affect my mood, and I remained in the happy gamma mode from my gamma brainwave biofeedback session earlier this week. Thank God!

The only side effect I had was being dizzy on the highway drive back. Sensory overload! Tired brain! But as soon as I had my cupcake and iced mocha, I was fine. I had had a healthy protein bar right after, but let's be real: an injured brain that's had to work hard wants glucose, its fuel, not muscle food.

*These are in the frontal lobes, one on the left and one on the right.